Relación entre factores socioeconómicos y salud bucal en estudiantes de una zona rural peruana

Christian Renzo Aquino Canchari, Lia Hilda Gutierrez Lazarte

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Resumen

Introducción: La salud bucal de los estudiantes de zonas rurales es un problema prioritario de salud pública en el Perú.

Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre factores socioeconómicos y salud bucal en estudiantes de una zona rural peruana.

Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal. La muestra estuvo conformada por 604 estudiantes de una zona rural peruana, los que fueron seleccionados por conveniencia. Se evaluaron los factores socioeconómicos mediante un cuestionario estructurado y la salud bucal a través de una ficha epidemiológica con los indicadores: Índice CPOD, índice de significancia de caries dental (SIC), índice de higiene oral simplificado (IHO-S), índice de consecuencias clínicas de caries no tratadas (PUFA), la evaluación fue realizada con luz natural por observadores calibrados. Los datos se analizaron en el programa STATA v.14 mediante tablas de distribución de frecuencias y figuras. La relación de cada uno de los factores socioeconómicos con la experiencia de la caries dental se evaluó mediante pruebas de regresión logística binarias simples.

Resultados: La prevalencia de caries dental fue de 85,26 % (CPOD = 6,60, SIC = 7,23) y la prevalencia de caries dental no tratada fue 61,75 % . La condición de higiene oral más frecuente fue regular.

Conclusiones: El nivel de instrucción analfabeto, la responsabilidad familiar y la ocupación independiente de los padres mostraron asociación estadísticamente significativa con la experiencia de caries dental de sus hijos en un área rural peruana (p < 0,001).

Palabras clave

salud bucal; caries dental; población rural; estudiantes; epidemiología; factores socioeconómicos; salud pública bucal; Perú; América Latina.

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